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Thermodynamics mdu btech notes and question paper free download



Basic Concepts: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches, Thermodynamic Systems, Surrounding and Boundary, Thermodynamic Property – Intensive and Extensive, Thermodynamic Equilibrium, State, Path, Process and Cycle, Quasi-static, Reversible and Irreversible Processes, Working Substance. Concept of Thermodynamic Work and Heat, Equality of Temperature, Zeroth Law of Thermodynamic and its utility, Problems. First Law of Thermodynamics:  Energy and its Forms, Energy and 1st law of Thermodynamics, Internal Energy and Enthalpy, PMMFK, Steady flow energy equation, 1st Law Applied to Non- flow process, Steady Flow Process and Transient Flow Process, Throttling Process and Free Expansion Process. Problems. 

Second Law of Thermodynamics:  Limitations of First Law, Thermal Reservoir, Heat Source and Heat Sink, Heat Engine, Refrigerator and Heat Pump, Kelvin- Planck and Clausius Statements and their Equivalence, PMMSK. Carnot Cycle, Carnot Heat Engine and Carnot Heat Pump, Carnot Theorem and its Corollaries, Thermodynamic Temperature Scale. Entropy, Clausius Inequality, Principle of Entropy Increase, Temperature Entropy Plot, Entropy Change in Different Processes, Introduction to Third Law of Thermodynamics. Problems.
Availability and Irreversibility:  High and Low Grade Energy, Availability and Unavailable Energy, Loss of Available Energy Due to Heat Transfer Through a Finite Temperature Difference, Dead state of a system, Availability of a Non-Flow or Closed System, Availability of a Steady Flow System, Helmholtz and Gibb’s Functions, Effectiveness and Irreversibility, Second law efficiencies of processes & cycles. Problems. 

Pure Substance: Pure Substance and its Properties, Phase and Phase Transformation, Vaporization, Evaporation and Boiling, Saturated and Superheat Steam, Solid – Liquid – Vapour Equilibrium, T-V, P-V and P-T Plots During Steam Formation, Properties of Dry, Wet and Superheated Steam, Property Changes During Steam Processes, Temperature – Entropy (T-S) and Enthalpy – Entropy (H-S) Diagrams, Throttling and Measurement of Dryness Fraction of Steam. Problems.
Ideal and Real Gases:  Concept of an Ideal Gas, Basic Gas Laws, Characteristic Gas Equation, Avogadro’s law and Universal Gas Constant, P-V-T surface of an Ideal Gas. Vander Waal’s Equation of state, Reduced Co-ordinates, Compressibility factor and law of corresponding states.  Mixture of Gases, Mass, Mole and Volume Fraction, Gibson Dalton’s law, Gas Constant and Specific Heats, Entropy for a mixture of non-reactive gases. Problems. 

Section-D Thermodynamic Relations: Maxwell Relations, Clapeyron Equation, Relations for changes in Enthalpy and Internal Energy & Entropy, Specific Heat Capacity Relations, Joule Thomson coefficient & inversion curve.
Gas power Cycles: Carnot Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, Dual Cycle,Stirling Cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, Problems.

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