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Air Standard Cycles: Internal and external combustion engines; classification of I.C. Engines, Cycles of operation in four stroke and two stroke I.C. Engines, Wankel Engines, Assumptions made in air standard cycle; Otto cycle; diesel cycle, dual combustion cycle, comparison of Otto, diesel and dual combustion cycles; sterling and Ericsson cycles; air standard efficiency, specific work output, specific weight; work ratio; mean effective pressure; deviation of actual engine cycle from ideal cycle. Problems. Carburetion, fuel Injection and Ignition systems: Mixture requirements for various operating conditions in S.I. Engines; elementary carburetor, Requirements of a diesel injection system; types of inject systems; petrol injection, Requirements of ignition system; types of ignition systems ignition timing; spark plugs. Problems.
Combustion in I.C. Engines : S.I. engines; Ignition limits; stages of combustion in S.I. Engines; Ignition lag; velocity of flame propagation; detonation; effects of engine variables on detonation; theories of detonation; octane rating of fuels; pre-ignition; S.I. engine combustion chambers, Stages of combustion in C.I. Engines; delay period; variables affecting delay period; knock in C.I. engines, Cetane rating; C.I. engine combustion chambers. Lubrication and Cooling Systems: Functions of a lubricating system, Types of lubrication system; mist, wet sump and dry sump systems; properties of lubricating oil; SAE rating of lubricants, engine performance and lubrication, Necessity of engine cooling; disadvantages of overcooling; cooling systems; air-cooling, water cooling; radiators.
Engine Testing and Performance: Performance parameters: BHP, IHP, mechanical efficiency, brake mean effective pressure and indicative mean effective pressure, torque, volumetric efficiency; specific fuel consumption (BSFC, ISFC), thermal efficiency; heat balance; Basic engine measurements; fuel and air consumption, brake power, indicated power and friction power, heat lost to coolant and exhaust gases; performance curves. Problems. Air pollution from I.C. Engine and Its remedies: Pollutants from S.I. and C.I. Engines, Methods of emission control; alternative fuels for I.C. Engines; the current scenario on the pollution front.
Rotary Compressors: Root and vane blowers; Static and total head values; Centrifugal compressors- Velocity diagrams, slip factor, ratio of compression, pressure coefficient, pre-whirl; Axial flow compressor- Degree of reaction, polytropic efficincy, surging, choking and stalling, performance characteristics, Problems. Gas Turbines: Brayton cycle; Components of a gas turbine plant; open and closed types of gas turbine plants; Optimum pressure ratio; Improvements of the basic gas turbine cycle; multi stage compression with inter-cooling; multi stage expansion with reheating between stages; exhaust gas heat exchanger, Applications of gas turbines. Problems.